Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 Societies, Robert J. House (ed.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif. (2004)
p. 99-127 in CoA 1 - A brief summary on three of GLOBEs dimensions
Global Leadership and Organization Behavior Effectiveness
Contains 9 dimensions: Practices (as is), and value (should be)
Norway is not included in this research.
Performance orientation reflects the extent to which a community encourages and reward innovations, high standards, and performance improvement. It is a high need of achievement and with achievement comes respect. (Grove 2005)
According to Max Weber the fundamental difference between Catholic and Protestant religions, lies in their approach to work and perform in this world. He argued that Catholicism focused in ?good work? as the exclusive path to salvation, and spending time and energy in earthly activities was nothing but waste of the opportunity to prepare for the eternal world, this is similar to a cultures with low performance orientation. In contrast, the Protestant doctrine introduced the idea of work as a calling. Similar to cultures with high performance orientation.
In the US and Norway, they believe in getting the job done even at the expense of individual freedom, and that respect does not depend on family background.
In contrast, individuals from cultures with lower performance orientation, tend to prefer individual freedom even at the expense of getting the job done, and believe in family background as the key determinant of social respect.
From highest to lowest on performance orientation: US, China, Germany (west), Japan, France, Germany (East), England
This dimension is slightly similar to Gestelands deal- vs relationship focused dimension and Hofstedes individualism/collectivism dimension.
A high score on performance orientation
A country with a high score on performance orientation focuses on training and development, emphasis on results over people, assertiveness, and competitiveness, direct communication, often monochronic. Cultures that scores high on performance orientation is often protestant. The protestant ethic is a special case of a universal achievement ethic, focusing on individual responsibility, hard work, knowledge and challenge.
Achievement-oriented societies tend to accord status in the basis of accomplishments. People are often evaluated on what they have achieved, how they perform and results given.
Key words: Achievement, performance, Protestants, accomplishments, feedback, training, development, emphasize results more than people, reward performance, value assertiveness, competitiveness, materialism, expect demanding targets, believe that individuals are in control, taking initiative, bonuses, financial rewards, anyone can succeed, schooling and education are critical for success, value being direct, direct communication, monochronic approach to time, have a sense of urgency.
A low score on performance orientation
A country with a low score on performance orientation focuses on traditions, family, affiliation and social ties. Social values are valued more than achievement. Emphasizes on loyalty and belonging, assertive ness are unacceptable. Very often polychromic.
Tend not to value feedback; they see as an evaluation of who the person is rather than of how he or she is doing. As one French manager explained: ?The French get offended by positive or negative feedback. If you are questioning by job, you are questioning my honor, my value, and my very being?.
Key words: family, Catholicism, promotion based in seniority, gender, age, importance of family background, emphasize loyalty and belongingness, high respect for quality of life, harmony, emphasize integrity, view assertiveness (confident and direct in claiming one's rights, not aggressive) as socially unacceptable, money as motivation is inappropriate, merit pay as potentially destructive to harmony, attending the ?right? school as an important success criterion, traditions, high on sympathy, value who you are more than what you do, age is important to get promoted, polychromic approach to time, low sense of urgency.
Cross-Cultural Differences in Gender Egalitarianism
To which extent an organization or society minimizes gender role differences while promoting gender equality.
Gender Egalitarianism = minimizing differences between roles.
Making and bearing children are absolute sex differences, all other differences are statistical. Woman not only bear children, but also feed and nurture them. Hence, the responsibility for nurturing people generally, and children, more specifically, falls on women. Men, on the other hand, are placed in charge of economic matters.
From the highest to lowest score on Gender Egalitarianism, based on Social Practices( p. 152): England (3.67), France (3.64), US (3.34), Japan (3.19) Germany (3.10 and 3.06), China (3.05)
The average on GLOBEs research was 3.37, meaning that The US, Japan, Germany and China is below average on Gender Egalitarianism, even though it is not very low in either country.
The minimum score was 2.50
The maximum score: 4.08
A high score on Gender Egalitarianism
Members of societies with more Gender Egalitarian values would prefer less active governments. They would prefer their government to stay out of the business of business, and for people to take responsibility for themselves.
Key words: More female leaders, similar levels of education between men and women, less occupational sex segregation, greater longevity, knowledge, greater standards of living, happier, generally more satisfied with their lives, greater economic prosperity, productivity, higher GNP per capita, greater acceptance of change, greater personal freedom for women, dislike of democracy,
A low score on Gender Egalitarianism
Key Words: Few female leaders, more occupational sex segregation, basically just the opposite of everything mentioned under cultures with high scores on Gender
Being assertive means that you are confident and not afraid of expressing your opinions or believes. Selvsikker
In which degree individuals in organizations or societies are assertive, confrontational and aggressive in social relationships.
It seems societies scoring high on Assertiveness tend to strive for less, and societies scoring low on Assertiveness express a desire for more. Too much assertiveness (competition, dominance and aggression) in a business culture can create an unsafe, untrusting environment. On the other hand, a business culture with too little assertiveness may be experienced as weak. In most business cultures ii is necessary with a certain level of competition and dominance to survive.
A high score on Assertiveness
Values assertive, dominant and though behavior for everyone in the society.
Key words: sympathy for the strong, value competition, believes that anyone can succeed if he or hse tries hard enough, values success, progress, direct communication, to the point in conversations, expressive, reveals thoughts and feelings, being aggressive can help you win, try to control the environment, competition, performance, ?can-do? attitude, emphasize results over relationships, taking initiative, expect demanding and challenging targets, individuals are in control, build trust on the basis of capabilities, act and think of others as opportunistic.
A low score on Assertiveness
Key words: view assertiveness as socially unacceptable and value modesty and tenderness, sympathy for the weak, value cooperation, associate competition with defeat and punishment, relationship over business, indirect communication, emphasize ?face-saving?, harmony, aggression only leads to negative outcomes, harmony with the environment rather can to control it, traditions, seniority experience, loyalty, view ?merit pay? as potentially destructive to harmony, value who you are more than what you do,